In the American political system, the unofficial fourth branch of government refers to a group that influences the other Three Branches of the US federal government defined in the American Constitution (Legislative, Executive and Judicial). Such groups can include the press (an analogy for the Fourth Estate), the people, and interest groups. US independent administrative government agencies, while technically part of the Executive branch (or, in a few cases, the Legislative branch) of government, may also be referred to as the fourth branch. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_branch_of_government
Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider (March 11, 1915 – June 26, 1990), known simply as J.C.R. or "Lick" was an American psychologist  and computer scientist considered one of the most important figures in computer science and general computing history. He is particularly remembered for being one of the first to foresee modern-style Interactive computing, and its application to all manner of activities; and also as an Internet pioneer, with an early vision of a worldwide computer network long before it was built. He did much to actually initiate all that through his funding of research which led to a great deal of it, including today's canonical graphical user interface, and the ARPANET, the direct predecessor to the Internet... In 1960 his seminal paper on ManComputerSymbiosis foreshadowed interactive computing, and he went on to fund early efforts in time-sharing and application development, most notably the work of Douglas Engelbart, who founded the Augmentation Research Center at Stanford Research Institute and created the famous On-Line System (NLS) where the computer mouse was invented. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._C._R._Licklider (more)
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