Stoicism was a school of Hellenistic Philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century B.C. The stoics considered destructive emotions to be the result of errors in judgment, and that a sage, or person of "MorAl and intellectual perfection," would not have such emotions. Stoics were concerned with the active relationship between cosmic determinism and human Freedom, and the belief that it is virtuous (Virtue) to maintain a Will (called prohairesis) (Self Control) that is in accord with nature. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a Way Of Life, and they thought that the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how he behaved.


Teach Yourself Stoicism And The Art Of Happiness ISBN:1444187104

Derek Sivers summarizes A Guide to the Good Life: The Ancient Art of Stoic Joy - by William Irvine ISBN:0195374614

Ryan Holiday: The Obstacle Is The Way ISBN:1591846358

Or is it "self-tyranny"?

Was Seneca a man who cherished sobriety, reason, and moral virtue (who) found himself at the centre of Roman politics... or: A clever manipulator (who) used verbal brilliance to represent himself as a sage... His final bid for esteem was his histrionic suicide, which he browbeat his unwilling wife into sharing.?

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