often historically managed through a Trade Guild
In DIY-U, Anya Kamenetz describes why the notion of apprenticeship was actually removed from the 1994 School-to-Work Opportunities Act: [K]ey provisions of the bill—including the word “apprenticeship”—were weakened in Congress. “We took it to the Hill” [said Dr. Carnevale at the Georgetown Center for Education and the Economy] “and the people who care about poor people and minorities said to us, ‘Look. There are two education systems in America: one where people go to college (College Education) and live happily ever after and the other, where people don’t, and struggle. The worst thing that can happen is that we have two systems that work, because we all know who’s going to be in the other one.’” In other words, explicit vocational (Vo-Tech) tracking is a no-no even if the outcomes for poor people are better, because they enshrine social divisions in law, something Americans have always been wary of doing.
Robert Halpern: The Means To Grow Up ISBN:0415960339 - Grounded in ethnographic studies, The Means to Grow Up illustrates how students work in unique ways around these meaningful activities and projects across a range of disciplines. Participation in these efforts strengthens skills, dispositions, and self-knowledge that is critical to future schooling and work, renews young people’s sense of vitality, and fosters a grounded sense of accomplishment. In unearthing the complexities of apprenticeship learning, Halpern challenges the Education system that is increasingly geared towards the acquisition of de-contextualized skills. (EBook cheaper at Google Books than others)